Energy Study Guide Fourth Grade
Thermal energy – the energy that makes particles of matter move.
Heat – the flow of thermal energy from one object to another. Heat always moves from warmer objects to cooler objects.
Temperature – measures the average energy of the particles in a substance.
Conduction – transfer of heat that occurs between two objects that are touching.
Convection – transfer of heat through liquids or gases.
Radiation – transfer of heat through space.
Insulators – materials that do not transfer heat very well.
Conductors – materials that transfer heat easily.
Vibration – back and forth motion.
Sound Wave – an area of crowded particles followed by widely spaced particles; move out in all directions from the source of a vibration and carries energy away.
Echo – a reflected sound.
Sound travels slowest in a gas, such as air, and fastest through a solid.
Wavelength – the distance from the peak of one wave to the peak of the next.
Frequency – the number of vibrations a sound makes in a given amount of time.
Pitch – the highness or lowness of a sound.
High sounds have high frequencies and vibrate more quickly.
Low sounds have low frequencies and vibrate more slowly.
Amplitude – the amount of energy in a sound wave.
Volume – loudness.
SONAR (SOund Navigation And Ranging) – a technology that uses sound waves to detect underwater objects by sending out sounds and receiving the echoes.
Light – a form of energy we detect with our eyes; always travels in a straight line.
Prism – an object that separates white light into bands of colored light.
Visible spectrum – all the colors we can see. (ROY G BIV – Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet)
Electromagnetic spectrum – the range of waves that make up light.
Refraction – the bending of light as it passes from one material to another; occurs when light goes through glass, water, or clear plastic, and when light moves from cold air to warm air.
Reflection – when a light wave hits a surface and bounces off.
Most light that reaches your eyes is reflected light.
Transparent – material that allows light to pass through.
Translucent – material that scatters light in all different directions making them hard to see through clearly.
Opaque – materials that block light completely.
Electrical charges: A positive charge and a negative charge attract, or pull, each other. Like charges repel, or push away, each other. Positive repels positive. Negative repels negative.
Static electricity – the buildup of electrical charges on an object; does not have moving charges.
Current electricity – the flow of electrical charges through a circuit.
Circuit – the path along which electric current flows.
Closed circuit – a complete, unbroken circuit; electricity is flowing.
Open circuit – a circuit with gaps; electricity is not flowing.
Series circuit – circuit where electric current flows in the same direction along a single path.
Parallel circuit – circuit where electric current flows through more than one path.
Magnet – something that can attract iron, nickel, and cobalt.
All magnets have two poles (north and south poles); opposites attract and like poles repel each other.Attraction is strongest when the magnets are closest together and gets weaker with distance.
Be able to distinguish between a sound wave with high frequency/high pitch and low frequency/low pitch
Be able to label the wavelength, amplitude, crest, and trough of a sound wave.