Shaping Earth Study Guide
Landforms – natural features on Earth’s surface.
Mountains – tallest and most visible landform.
Plain – flattest kind of landform.
Below Earth’s Surface:
- Crust – solid rock that makes up Earth’s outermost layer; thin, brittle, and can crack easily.
- Mantle – layer of rock below the crust; solid but can move or change shape at high pressures and temperatures.
- Outer core – liquid layer below the mantle; made mostly of melted iron.
- Inner core – sphere of solid material at Earth’s center; hottest part of Earth.
Fault – a long, narrow crack in the Earth’s crust that is caused when plates rub past each other.
Fold – a bend in rock layers.
How do mountains form? – Form from folding or faulting caused by pressure in Earth’s crust.
Earthquake – a sudden shaking of Earth’s crust.
What causes an earthquake? – Caused by plates sliding against each other and building up energy.
- Inside – duck under a table or stand in a doorway; stay away from walls and windows.
- Outside – stay away from trees and power lines.
Seismic waves – vibrations caused by earthquakes.
Seismograph – an instrument that detects and records earthquakes.
Volcano – a mountain that builds up around an opening in Earth’s crust.
Magma – melted rock from a volcanic eruption.
Lava – magma that reaches Earth’s surface.
Weathering – the slow process that breaks rocks down into smaller pieces. Caused by flowing water, rain, and wind.
Factors that affect weathering: angle of the slope on a hill, amount of trees and plants, speed of the wind, speed and amount of flowing water.
Physical weathering – process where rocks change size and shape without changing their chemical makeup. (Alka-Seltzer hit by a hammer)
Chemical Weathering – process that changes the minerals that make up rocks; minerals change into new substances. (Alka-Seltzer dropped into water)
Erosion – the transport of weathered rock from one location to another by water, ice, or wind. Caused by flowing water, waves, wind, gravity, and glaciers.
Deposition – the dropping off of weathered rock in another location.
Events that cause the Earth’s surface to change quickly:
Landslide – the sudden downhill movement of rock and soil in large amounts.
Avalanche – the sudden downhill movement of ice and snow.
**Students should have numerous diagrams, foldables, and notes in their science notebooks that will provide all of the resources necessary to prepare for this test.